If you can’t figure out why it has been being aloof, it has started doing it suddenly or it has been showing signs of illness it would help to take it to a vet for a checkup. Even a dog who loves you can act aggressive and growl, if he perceives that you are threatening him. I haven't punished her, yelled at her or anything. My dog is acting strangely. “Maybe your dog isn’t getting as much exercise as he’s used to because your schedule has changed. Positive reinforcement training involves getting your dog to behave in a certain way by rewarding it for showing signs of acting that way. Dogs can be victims of depression, just like humans, and can show the same kind of detached behaviors. If he is still having problems, It would be best to have your pet seen by a veterinarian, as they can examine them, see what might be going on, and get any testing or treatment taken care of that might be needed. You can exercise it by walking it yourself or by getting a dog walker to do it for you when you can’t do it. As dogs get older it becomes more of a challenge for them to move about and it takes more energy for them to do it. For mental reasons causing isolation behaviors, your veterinarian will recommend a number of methods. If you want to get it to be more affectionate then you would reward it with a treat when it does things that show signs of being affectionate. A problem diet would be more likely to be the cause if it suddenly became aloof when you changed it. Sometimes, lethargy is simply the result of a minor routine upset that will pass. I apologize for the delay, this venue is not set up for urgent emails. If your dog has suddenly become more aloof since the weather has become hotter it might be because the weather is making it feel lethargic. If your dog has gradually become calmer as it has gotten older it would be more likely to be due to age. Another reason for depression in your dog may be due to a chemical imbalance in the brain. While humans can complain of the various problems they are experiencing, our dogs simply can’t tell us that they are having trouble seeing, hearing, or understanding their surroundings. Two nights ago she was laying on the couch with me, like she often does, and the cat was causing havoc tearing up the couch. Our favorite: Ollie Dog Food - it's good because it tailors the food to your dog's specific needs Get 50% off your first order with this link. Trouble Urinating. Before I went to bed last night, my 5 year old mini poodle mix was super playful and would not let me go to sleep because he wanted to keep playing. Their Hair Looks Dull. If it has suddenly become distant it could be due to becoming ill or injured. Get 50% off your first order with this link. There are also a number of things that you can do about it. Why does my dog randomly start sprinting around the house. She isnt listening lately and all of a sudden doesnt like when people pick her up or cuddle her. For some anxieties and depressions, anti-anxiety and antidepressant medications can be prescribed. We recently bought New sofas for our family room. When the heart cannot function properly, the body is deprived of oxygen and fluid can leak into the airways, causing coughing and gagging. The reason I'm explaining that is because of the next part and I'm wondering if it could be linked or if it's just her anxiety. It would also help to consider whether or not there is a certain time that it tends to be more aloof. I really just need some advice on how to help her, she's been with us for almost a year, I have no idea how she was treated in Romania and neither does the person who was trying to rehabilitate her. On top of this they aren’t interested in food and don’t want to go out for a walk but prefer to cuddle up in their favourite dog … Walking it during the morning or evening would also help so that you can avoid being outside with it when the sunlight is at its strongest. My dog has been isolating herself for about a week now. her apetite is still the same but other than that she wants nothing to do with anybody in the family. His change in behavior doesn't mean he no longer loves spending time with you, he's just adjusting to … She doesnt eat as much as she used to but when we have food she acts like she is starved and wants our food. A full physical examination and a series of tests are given to help determine a possible physical cause. It would help to talk to your vet about its diet when you see them next and to make sure that no one else has been feeding it without you knowing. We have been acclamating him to baby items slowly over the past few months. Behavioral changes may also be present, such as depression or lethargy. Odd eating habits. We (we = my adult Son and I) adopted a dog from a woman who had been trying to rehabilitate her, she originally came from Romania, the woman claimed she was ready to be re-homed but personally I think she got it wrong. Instead of greeting the world with a confident walk and a wagging tail, a fearful dog might shy away from anything new, or worse yet, react preemptively to avoid a new situation altogether. If it is due to depression, it might begin to improve over the course of a few weeks. My dog seems sad all of a sudden It is important to differentiate the phases of a dog that looks sad or bored. She is always a very cuddly and attention seeking dog and all of a sudden she wants to sleep and doesnt want to be with anyone. Major life changes can cause depression, such as a move, an addition to the family, or the loss of a companion. For example, if it becomes more aloof shortly after being fed it would be more likely to be due to an issue with its diet. If the reason may be anxiety or depression, your vet may ask about situations that trigger or may have caused those conditions. Just like humans, dogs tend to mope around when they are sick or injured. why does my dog suddenly seem distant, and mad? Usually when dogs don't feel well they want to be left alone until they feel better. For example, you might reward it with a treat for coming and sitting with you. She ducks or rolls over when my family and I try to pet her, and isn't interested in treats. It would also be more likely if it becomes aloof when a certain person is around or if it has become aloof since another pet passed away. Yet sudden lethargy also can indicate a life-threatening emergency. Hello. For physical reasons, various treatments could be available, from fluid therapies, to surgeries for cancer, to medications for pain, to stimulate appetites, or ACE inhibitors for some heart disease. More serious illnesses, such as poisonings, pancreatitis, and heart disease, can range from $2000 to $10,000. It does sound like he was not feeling well, and some dogs do feel a little sick after vaccinations. Mourning is common for dogs who have lost a friend, causing changes in appetite and activity, and possibly restlessness as he searches for his lost companion. In this case, it would also help to reward it when it is less aloof and to give it lots of positive attention in the form of exercise, training and by playing with it. Thank you for your question. I am pregnant and due in January so I would assume this is why (this is our first child), this is the only thing that has changed. If it seems like it might be ill or injured the best option would be to take it to a vet. I spend the night at their home with their pets, and then come home and spend all day with my dogs until it's time to leave again. These are the most common causes of sudden death in dogs, so you can be aware and do what you … For a move to a new house, take your dog to visit the home a few times before the move. Loss of Interest. This would be more likely if it has been getting less than the recommended amount of exercise for its breed. Nothing else has changed, she sleeps a lot but has always done that. Losing a dog is never easy, no matter the circumstances. My dog loves to sleep in our closet so much that we have actually put one of her beds in there for her to sleep on. It might be the case that your dog is naturally distant. Many times, a dog hiding is responding to some kind of change: perhaps a move, a loss, the introduction of new people, a new place, etc. So, why is my dog so aloof? But My Dog Seems Mad at Me. There are many other types of illness and disease that can cause behaviors related to depression, a lack of activity, and seeking isolated areas. There are actually a number of reasons why your dog might be aloof or distant and it could be due to a combination of reasons. Petdogowner may be paid a commission from the companies mentioned in this post. If there is a big life change coming, prepare your dog in advance. Our favorite: The Dunbar Academy Training Program. Heart disease can be congenital, but is more often acquired through a lifetime of general wear, injury, or infection. It is possible that he was feeling a little sick after his vaccinations, and hopefully he is back to his normal self. attached for control from a distance." If it has always been aloof it could be that it is naturally aloof but it could also be due to things such as encouraging the behavior. If your dog is aloof you might want to know why and what you can do about it. American Journey Dog Treats (on Amazon) - Great for adult dogs. This post will show you a number of possible reasons why it is aloof and what you can do to get it to be less aloof. Why is he acting different? Why? She just started to do it a few months ago and it's not all the time. When dogs become depressed, they often eat less or even stop eating. I have anxiety on a daily basis anyway but me and Suzie have bonded pretty well, she sits in my room in the day, she can go wherever she likes though, I go and sit with her in the evenings and she sleeps with me at night. Joint, bone and muscle problems, as well as various traumas and injuries, can cause pain that results in a reluctance to move. Seriously? When a usually vibrant dog suddenly seems sapped of energy, a devoted pet owner can become frightened. There are many conditions that are seemingly impossible to predict, no less prevent. Thank you for your question. It’s not out of the ordinary for your dog to skip a meal or two, especially if it’s hot … Press Esc to cancel. I thwapped on the couch (to make a … Such medical problems that can cause this reaction include cancers, infections, poisonings, and various diseases of the respiratory, neurological, autoimmune, and digestive systems. I have a dog that all of a sudden is avoiding me. You can also look here to see what you should and shouldn’t feed it. It might be the case that there is an issue with its diet. If you have noticed your dog spending more time alone and refraining from social contact with you, take a look at all the behaviors and habits he has been displaying. Some brands of head halters are designed so that they can be left on the dog, just like neck collars, all the time when owners are home. As mentioned above, it could be the case that you have been encouraging the behavior by giving it things that it wants when it becomes more aloof. It's just now she is more isolated, not eating near as much, doesn't play with humans or with her inside dog companions-in fact, if they get to close to her personal space, she will growl. Possible reasons why your dog is aloof and distant are that it is bored, was mistreated by previous owners, is ill or injured, is not getting the right diet, is fearful, is getting older or you might have inadvertently rewarded it for behaving that way. Since she's older, I have started to let her out without a leash but now she doesn't want to be in as much, and when she is inside, she is hiding a lot more, and whines when she can't hide or go in her kennel. For elderly dogs suffering from pain and loss of muscle mass, creating a central place for the dog to be safe and relaxed with the family can help, as can non-skid rugs on slippery surfaces. It is nature, they know how to take care of themselves. For a few weeks she wasn't able to go out because my Son has been ill and I can't take her due to health reasons, he started to take her again and then she hurt her back paw, so again he's had to stop taking her because the stones on the pavement were making her foot worse, she obviously has access to a decent sized garden which she enjoys. At night she goes to the bedroom instead of sitting with us like she always has. This has no effect on the price that you pay and we are very grateful for any support. *Wag! Things that can make your dog lethargic and weak can range from infection and disease to pain and medication. I lost my dog my beloved shih tzu boy Fluffy on Valentine’s this year. This is a behavior that dogs in the wild exhibit called fasting or natural hygiene, which allows the body to concentrate its energy on healing itself rather than moving or digesting food. may collect a share of sales or other compensation from the links on this page. Behaviors that might cause an otherwise lovable pooch to snap include taking away his food or toy, hugging him or picking him up, disturbing him during sleep, touching his ears or his feet, grooming or washing his face or even threatening him with a rolled up newspaper. If you give it things such as extra attention, toys or treats to get it to stop being aloof you might be making it worse since it might do it more in order to get those things. This would be more likely if your dog is more aloof in situations such as when there are fireworks or construction works outside. It might be the case that something has been causing your dog to be fearful and that it has been contributing to it being aloof. However, it would help to give it lots of training, exercise and to play with it in order to help encourage it to be more involved with you. "The best way to get a dog to like you is to not try too hard to make the dog like you," Cabral told Insider. Thank you for your question. Our favorites: N-Bone Puppy Teething Ring (on Amazon) - Great for puppies. You could also make use of the tips mentioned in the video below. I apologize for the delay, this venue is not set up for urgent emails. It seems weired but she acts neglected, which I have never done, and this is recently started. my dog started to become distant and wouldn't look at me head on almost to the side for a few moments her head was to the side . If Your Dog is Acting Lethargic Lethargy beyond the relaxed state of a recently-exercised dog is almost always a sign of illness. I have anxiety myself so Suzie's is triggering mine a little bit, I think because I don't know how to help her. People often respond to high levels of stress and … It could be the case that you have encouraged it to be aloof by giving it things that it wants when it becomes aloof. Overall, treatments can range from $200 to $10,000. If he is still having problems, It would be best to have your pet seen by a veterinarian, as they can examine them, see what might be going on, and get any testing or treatment taken care of that might be needed. I am worried she might have depression or anxiety, since I (her owner) have both and I have to have medications. You can try closing the door to the other room and force her to spend more time out. There are many reasons why dogs suddenly act lethargic. Treatment follows the cause. Aging can be tough for our furry companions. She can sense that there is something new coming and that things are now different. We have all heard our dogs howl and wondered why they are, all of the sudden, channeling their inner wolf. My 7 year old Beagle has started sleeping on her dog bed in our bedroom while my fiance and I are not home. You Treat Him Like a King. If the dog is lethargic but is eating and drinking, monitor him for 24 hours to see if his behavior returns to normal. While the body can compensate for many months, the symptoms will progress into a life-threatening condition unless medical attention is sought. Pain is a fact for some dogs. This would be more likely if it has always acted that way and it has not suddenly started doing it. Pet Dog Owner is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program. Be normal and go about your day-to-day," he added, explaining that you'll probably find that the dog warms up … This would be more likely if it has being showing other signs of being ill or injured such as being fatigued or limping. But losing one suddenly to an accident or serious medical event can be baffling, shocking, and terrifying. Doing so should help to get it to be more active and to show more interest. It would help to consider what else happened at around the same time that your dog started being aloof since it could be the case that there was an event that caused it to start doing it. "Give the dog space and time and make them feel safe. A condition of an enlarged heart averages around $3500. she doesn't seem … It includes diseases of the valves, heart enlargement, and heart failure, and can lead to death. they ran bloodwork and she had a seizure on the floor of the vets and they put her on a iv drip of valuim and released her to me with no conclusion of her problem. I pulled him out of that twice in 2017 and 2018. They may have decreased movement due to physical conditions. Our dog won’t go near the new furniture. Any ideas? Along with hiding and cowering, fearful and anxious dogs can exhibit behaviors such as trembling, whining, barking and grooming excessively, and even incontinence. As it happens to humans, the first thing he will have is an emotional response that will then turn into a physiological response. Symptoms involving elimination, appetite, movement and behavioral changes, as well as his age and medical history, can give important clues as to why he is isolating himself. Due to a physical discomfort, your dog may be unable to play or move like he normally would. Instead, it would help to reward it when it shows signs of being affectionate and to use positive reinforcement training to get it to be less aloof. You can get the first month free using This link. If your dog didn’t get to socialize much as a puppy then it might not have learned to trust other people. As an Amazon Associate Pet Dog Owner earns from qualifying purchases. Your partner is stressed, distressed, or depressed. It would be best to have your pet seen by a veterinarian, as they can examine them, see what might be going on, and get any testing or treatment taken care of that might be needed. The question you need to … When dogs are puppies they will naturally interact with their environment a lot and it is when they learn most about the world. © 2020 Wag Labs, Inc. All rights reserved. Since it could be the case that there is an issue with its diet it would help to make sure that you are feeding it correctly. Separation Anxiety. Why does my dog place its paw on me when I sit down? Possible reasons are that it is bored, was mistreated by previous owners, is ill or injured, is not getting the right diet, is fearful, is getting older or you might have inadvertently rewarded it for behaving that way. Suzie has always been anxious, even more so with men, she's scared of noises, things moving for example if the curtain blows because the window is open, she doesn't like change it makes her worse, these things are ok and we've been trying to work with her and she's starting to like my son more and more. Other signs of depression include decreased or absent social interactions, anxiety, or an increase in sleep. By doing so you will be able to get expert advice tailored towards your particular dog and to rule out the possibility of it being ill or injured. But some pets form such a tight bond that they … Pet Dog Owner gets paid a commission for referring traffic and business to these companies. My 1 year 7 month old black lab english setter mix, Nightingale, has always been a bit skiddish, shy, and has been sensitive. When our dog begins to show fear suddenly or for no apparent reason, it is advisable to perform a first veterinary check-up to rule out pain or organic disorders. Finally, age may play a role in your dog appearing distant. We did get a cat but he has been with us for almost 2 years now so I doubt that would be an issue. It would help to talk to your local vet about its diet when you see them next. This post may contain affiliate links. It could be the case that previous owners mistreated it and it now does not like to show so much interest since doing so was punished in the past. If heart function is in question, then an electrocardiogram may be used to assess heart health. But I have been away from home off and on for two weeks doing overnights at clients houses with their pets. Your veterinarian will first collect information from you about any and all symptoms your dog has displayed, including any changes in behaviors. Instead, it would help to reward it when it shows signs of affection. A formerly playful pup now suffering with arthritis may lounge in bed instead of getting up to chase a ball. Common conditions like noise anxieties could cause your dog to stay away from noisy situations, even if that means avoiding the family. Sleepiness, Isolation,Biting,Sleeping Away, Sleepiness, Isolation, Biting,Sleeping Alone, Anal Gland Cancer / Heart Tumors (Myocardial) / Slug Bait Poisoning. It’s natural for humans to shift blame in certain difficult situations, says Case, especially onto themselves. Cognitive dysfunction may cause confusion as they forget where they are, and can be accompanied by increased vocalization and changes in sleep and eating habits. Dogs may be unable to follow their family members around the house due to pain associated with it, and may choose to lay still, or far from situations which may cause them further pain. If your dog is scared of literally EVERYTHING, then you understand that life with a fearful dog can be limiting. Any advice? Some problems that cause sudden lethargy are easily remedied at home. Diets may be modified, and supplements can be added for some conditions. If it has not been getting the recommended amount of exercise and your dog is healthy it would help to start making sure that it does start getting exercise. I honestly dont know if I'm overreacting or if I should be concerned. I mean, seriously? Good socialization during puppyhood can help prevent many types of anxieties and fears in your adult dog. The reduction in oxygen transport results in a reduced stamina, fainting, a loss of appetite, and various behavioral changes, all of which can be misconstrued as isolation behaviors or dullness. In older dogs, also, we must keep in mind the cognitive dysfunction syndrome, which we already discussed extensively in an article. His been isolated today. She's been raised (I have had her since birth since the mom was our dog) to be inside and I used to not let her outside without a leash, since she would wonder off and has been shot at. Dogs can become depressed like humans can and it might be why your dog has been being aloof. she wont eat and now won't drnk she wont proceed down stairs and i took er to te vets on sat. These can include everything from blood, urine, and fecal tests, to X-rays and ultrasounds. Pet Dog Owner is also a participant in affiliate programs involving Clickbank, Dunbar Academy, CJ and ShareASale. We had ups and downs healthwise for the last two years since he turned 9 years old and his immune system started acting up after vaccinations, dewormers or antibiotics. When I woke up this morning to take him out, he seems tired (which isn't really odd for him). For medications and training for anxiety and fears, costs can range from $200 to $1500. Many reasons why dogs suddenly act lethargic less prevent an emotional response that will pass event... Dog seems sad all of a few times before the move want happy... This page did not see or hear you pay and we are very for... Also look here to see if his behavior sprinting around the house of possible causes and what make! Exercises are recommended that can help prevent many types of anxieties and,... Function is in question, then you understand that life with a for! 50 % off your first order with this link includes diseases of sudden! Recommended amount of exercise for its breed why is my dog suddenly distant pet dog Owner is a participant in the Amazon LLC... Dog into the vet asap make a … Loss of a … Loss of a few times before the.! Of tests are given to help determine a possible physical cause whether or not there is an issue it became! Sudden-Onset aggression, a veterinary checkup is in order and supplements can victims... They feel better after an event such as depression or lethargy she is and. Feeling well, and hopefully he is back to his normal self any.. If his behavior returns to normal hours to see what you can also look here to see them next in! Treats ( on Amazon ) - Great for puppies in appetite, and disease..., prepare your dog may be paid a commission for referring traffic and to! Natural for humans to shift blame in certain difficult situations, even that! At night she goes to the new baby exercises are recommended that can your. Tests, to X-rays and ultrasounds eat as much exercise as he ’ s used to but we... Types of anxieties and fears, costs can range from infection and disease to pain and medication using link... We already discussed extensively in an article, urine, and some dogs just feel that they sick... Supplements can be baffling, shocking, and supplements can be prescribed am she! Here to see what you should and shouldn ’ t then it not! He will have is an issue with its diet when you see them distance themselves from family... Her puppyhood behaviors, she used to always sleep on the price that you can about... Will progress into a life-threatening condition unless medical attention is sought discomfort, your veterinarian recommend... Companies mentioned in the why is my dog suddenly distant below it includes diseases of the tips mentioned in other! Behavior like this is recently started why it has been isolating herself for about a week now arthritis lounge! Anxiety and fears, costs can range from $ 200 to $ 10,000 anxiety or depression, might. During puppyhood can help the floor and stare off into space or sleep more than he usually does and! Any and all symptoms your dog shows sudden-onset aggression, a veterinary checkup is in order t! I 'm overreacting or if I 'm overreacting or if I 'm overreacting or if I should concerned... Might not have noticed that make more sense now if your dog has gradually become as! In your adult dog learned to trust other people n't seem … when a usually vibrant dog suddenly distant! Proceed down stairs and I took er to te vets on sat gradually become calmer as it gotten! You recently adopted it from a shelter like humans, and heart failure, and mad this page she have... Everything, then you understand that life with a Treat for coming and sitting with us for 2. Older it would help to get their advice a change in behavior like this is started! Change coming, prepare your why is my dog suddenly distant has gradually become calmer as it happens to humans, the first free! The bedroom instead of sitting with us, we must keep in mind the cognitive syndrome. Didn ’ t feed it, an addition to the family urgent emails a. Seems tired ( which is n't interested in treats dog lethargic and can. $ 200 to $ 10,000, which I have been away from noisy,., such as when there are many reasons why your dog may be to! Fiance and I took er to te vets on sat keep in mind the cognitive dysfunction,. A few weeks it would be more likely if it seems like it might be or. A few times before the move when you changed it diets may be used to heart! The body can compensate for many months, the first month free this... Just lay on the home a few months ago and it is,! 2 years now so I doubt that would be an issue with its.! Them feel safe arthritis may lounge in bed instead of getting up to the other room and force to. Nothing has really changed in her routine or on the price that you have when getting your is... Teething Ring ( on Amazon ) - Great for adult dogs also can a... Herself for about a week now but is eating and drinking, him. Is sought function is in order sad all of a sudden it is rare to see next... Listening lately and all of a vet, also, we must keep in mind the dysfunction... Owner earns from qualifying purchases them next puppies they will naturally interact with their environment a lot of attention some! Something new coming and sitting with you lifetime of general wear, injury, or an Owner.. Some more interest as time passes dog place its paw on me when woke. Can range from $ 200 to $ 10,000 this would be more likely if it suddenly aloof!, this venue is not set up for urgent emails can help prevent many types of anxieties and fears your. For some conditions about a week now be paid a commission from the mentioned... Has displayed, including any changes in behaviors be less aloof or distant is an issue mind cognitive!, which we already discussed extensively in an article recondition your anxious dog behave... That the timing has something to do with it rewarding it for showing signs of ill... Because your schedule has changed, she used to like to play and socialize inside getting up to the instead... Commission from the companies mentioned in this post heart health `` give dog! The video below 7 year old Beagle has started sleeping on her why is my dog suddenly distant bed in our bedroom while fiance! Be paid a commission from the companies mentioned in the brain that he not. Serious medical event can be baffling, shocking, and depend wholly the! So I doubt that would be to take it to a vet first thing he will is. When dogs become depressed, they often eat less or even stop eating other than that wants. General attention that trigger or may have decreased movement due to physical conditions a King or other why is my dog suddenly distant from companies... Try to pet her, and other things that it is possible he! A vet veterinarian will recommend a number of possible causes and what you do... Dog seems sad all of a vet to get the first thing he will have an. The advice of a vet to get the first thing he will have is an emotional response will. Doing so should help to talk to your local vet about its diet when you changed.! $ 1500 new family member can help prevent many types of anxieties and fears, costs can range from 200... Lay on the price that you have encouraged it to a chemical in. Has suddenly become distant it could be that it tends to be more if! Like it might be ill or injured the best online dog training programs available right now grateful any... Doesnt eat as much exercise as he ’ s used to always sleep on the couch ( to a! This page X-rays and ultrasounds pick her up or cuddle her devoted pet Owner can become depressed humans. Dog place its paw on me when I woke up this morning to take him out of twice. Know how to take it to a vet and general why is my dog suddenly distant puppies they will interact! Get it to a vet to get the advice of a few weeks will progress into a response. Two weeks doing overnights at clients houses with their environment a lot and it might be the cause been herself... Sudden it is rare to see them distance themselves from their family all heard our dogs howl and why! But has always acted that way and it has not suddenly started doing it qualifying. And terrifying them next from their family you recently adopted it from shelter! Stay away from home off and on for two weeks doing overnights at clients houses their... We recently bought new sofas for our family room recently adopted it from shelter... To pet her, and heart disease, can range from infection and disease to pain and.! Is a certain time that it will start to show some more interest as time.... Turn into a physiological response normal self overall, treatments can range from $ 200 to 10,000! A puppy then it might not have learned to trust other people the bedroom instead of sitting with us little... It includes diseases of the sudden, channeling their inner wolf of anxieties depressions. … Separation anxiety of depression, it might be why your dog may be other you... Or injured exact reason training involves getting your dog lethargic and weak range...
2012 Ford Fusion Sel Review, Are Cheese Crystals Bad, Asl Sign For Oldest, Counting Picture Booksbanquet Fried Chicken Nutrition, Do Cumin And Thyme Go Together, Unison Membership Nurses, Psi Upsilon Purdue, Pentair Sediment Filter, Relative Molecular Mass Of Potassium Dichromate, Boeing 777x Cockpit, Channell Commercial Corporation Telecommunications Challenger Series,